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Hydrodynamic instabilities in the oceans that form in the wake of currents or are generated by winds. Eddies may persist for weeks or months, and may be tens to hundreds of kilometres across. They penetrate quite deep below the ocean surface and transport heat, salts and nutrients. Electromagnetic Bias (EMB)Perturbation of the altimeter radar pulse due to the fact that wave troughs reflect more energy than wave crests.